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when to use divergent thinking

What kind of things could you do with a brick and a pen? Divergent thinking goes hand-in-hand with joy, optimism, and inner well-being. Some Match Problems allow the generation of multiple solutions to the same problem. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. Lastly, assessing an individual's response to creative work or examining the degree to which an individual accepts or even initiates creative action is an important aspect of creativity that should be examined. However, knowing that these constraints exist should not cause us to bypass divergent thinking. Anonymity condition yielded higher scores than identified condition in flexibility scores. For example, the fact that a paper clip consists of metal could be emphasized in order to see it as a device for conducting an electric current. Many educational centers do encourage their students to do more than find the right answer. Divergent thinking may play several roles in organizations. Divergent thinking is relevant here because it reflects the ability to generate many solutions to a problem or prompt (i.e., fluency). However, our schools and universities still prioritize a very convergent type of thinking in their methodology. Divergent thinking, in isolation, is free to consider any possible solution that enters the mind of the designer. Jung (2000–2001) compared transformational and transactional leadership in the conditions of real versus nominal brainstorming groups. UK: Vermilion, Divergent Thinking (Creativity Research). I use Divergent Thinking techniques with Teams when using the Design Thinking Double Diamond process, specifically during the Define and Discover phases to generate creative ideas spontaneously and in a free-flowing, non-linear way. For the next 35 years he attempted to prove exactly this. This program was developed by Sidney Parnes and colleagues during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages of creative problem-solving. With this in mind Sosik, Kahai, and Avolio (1998) investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and anonymity, and divergent thinking. Thus, creativity involves tertiary process thinking in which primary and secondary process thinking are combined to yield effective novelty. He was president of the American Psychological Association and devoted his 1949 Presidential Address to creativity (Guilford 1950). In addition, divergent doing tasks have also been developed (e.g., Bertsch, 1983; Moraru, Memmert, & van der Kamp, 2016; Wyrick, 1968) to assess divergence in motor domain, for example, asking participants to produce as many actions as possible on an agility ladder laid on the ground (e.g., stepping, skipping). In solving a problem using divergent thinking, a person was first posted on December 11, 2020 at 9:01 am.©2019 "nursingcoursework.org". However, divergent thinking, as the precursor to convergent thinking and taking place within a creative problem-solving (or top-down engineering design) process, does not have the same complete freedom. They concluded that the selection of tests is important even when they seem to measure same or similar skills. The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking is the most widely used test to assess divergent thinking and creativity. Early EEG results from pioneering studies by Colin Martindale distinguished alpha wave activity in relation to engagement in the Alternate Uses Test from activity in relation to engagement in the Remote Associates Test and intelligence tests. In many courses aimed at training people in divergent thinking, students are asked questions like the following: At the beginning, it may be hard to come up with even one idea. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. We can’t see the brain as an entity with clearly separated areas. Delivery media includes the types of materials that were used to convey material during the course. All ideas are valid for idea stimulation in divergent thinking. The most ingenious people use tree-like thought processes. In the 1960’s J.P. Guilford differentiated and defined convergent and divergent thinking. “Imagination is the beginning of creation. These researchers found gains in divergent thinking on a variety of tasks including social problem-solving and planning. Not surprisingly, divergent thinking tests are among the most commonly used in creativity research. When EEG data were analyzed along the lower (8–12 Hz) and upper (10–12 Hz) alpha frequencies, the results demonstrated that the generation of unusual uses in the context of the Alternate Uses Test is associated with greater alpha synchronization in lower and upper bands compared to a task in which subjects were instructed to think of typical characteristics of conventional everyday objects. It is very useful in creating something innovative and practicing divergent thinking. These neuropsychological results have been corroborated with fMRI data. A thesis of English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Muhammadiyah University of Makassar. Being aware…, Mom, tell me again about how I was born. In a society accustomed to mimicking similar skills, there comes a time when large companies begin to value other skills. In the 1950s, J. P. Guildford and his colleagues defined it as the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to a given situation or problem. A matchbox can be regarded as a nonconductor with movable parts. ), Adapt it (What do people do to be less stressed at other workplaces? Problem finding, conceptual combination, and idea evaluation are only a few processes that have been identified as being important contributors to the creative process. While creative ideas are often the precursor to progress, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies. If convergent thinking is applied then after, the very best answer can be picked out from the multiple solutions resulted due to divergent thinking. This event can be…, Today, we'll travel back several hundred years to the Renaissance to learn about Sandro Botticelli, one of the most renowned…, You've probably experienced a sudden (or gradual) loss of appetite before. Maybe it's using … Divergent thinking tests were also used for prediction of managerial creativity. Spending time and energy to solve problems or engage in cognitive processes such as divergent thinking do not amount to much in the real-world if nothing is ever produced. They may arrive at what appears to be wrong answers, but when asked, they can justify those answers in clear, logical reasoning. Once we have that “idea”, we’ll put it through a series of “filters”. However, the real problem is that we’ve been “trained” to only think this way. Well, we have to be careful with this kind of generalization about lateralization or cerebral dominance. Scratchley and Hakstian (2000–2001) used a battery of divergent thinking tests that were developed for industrial settings, including three components: the brainstorming exercise, which requires finding many solutions for a management problem; the similarities exercise, which entails finding many similarities between two different objects; and the association exercise which is about finding a word that connects three dissimilar words. In the meeting mentioned at the beginning of this video, your team was constantly switching back and forth between convergent and divergent thinking. As expected, the transformational leadership group was more flexible and fluent than the transactional group; and also nominal groups were superior to real groups in those regards. However, behavioral addictions are equally important to…, Philip Zimbardo is a well-known and controversial social psychologist and researcher. Supervised by Ummi Khaerati Syam and Ardiana. Additionally, the theoretical framework a course designer used in developing the course is likely to have a pervasive influence on all four of these factors. Lateral Thinking. Thus, access to different conceptual categories enables the activation of more original ideas. Because some of the resulting ideas are original, divergent thinking represents the potential for creative thinking and problem solving. Creativity Research, Herostratus Complex: Specialists in the Art of Posing, 3 Strategies to Process Obsessive Thoughts, My Greatest Triumph Is Having Achieved Emotional Independence, When Someone Makes You a Better Person You Know They Should Be in Your Life, Sandro Botticelli: Biography and Metamorphosis of the Soul, Philip Zimbardo, Author of The Lucifer Effect. The beauty of this structure is that it applies in any time frame. The amount of new ideas is much higher than in convergent thinking, and the emphasis is placed on the overall picture of a situation, ideas, and problems. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. You imagine what you desire, you will what you imagine, and at last you create what you will.”. Greater alpha synchronization was especially prevalent in frontal areas of the brain. Seeing these two objects in this way would make it possible to utilize them as the basic materials for the construction of an electric switch. V. Drago, K.M. In general, they’ve prioritized a type of reflection (or rather lack thereof) where the student must use linear thinking, rules, and structured processes to come to the one “right” solution. Of course the downside of measuring creativity purely based on output is that it does not necessarily allow researchers to draw inferences about how that performance was obtained. In fact, it is also a type of thinking very common in children, where joy, imagination, and a fresh perspective make their reasoning more free. Indeed, much of his thinking on creativity was, and remains, remarkably influential (see Runco 1999d). You may have noticed, however, that it is hard to talk about divergent thinking without reference to convergent thinking. The highest flexibility was observed in the anonymous high transformational group and the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership. Defining Divergent Thinking Create solutions to problems. In fact, it is also a type of thinking very common in children, where joy, imagination, and a fresh perspective make their reasoning more free. “Divergent thinking is the process of coming up with new ideas and possibilities—without judgment, without analysis, without discussion. In no sense is this information intended to provide diagnoses or act as a substitute for the work of a qualified professional. We use divergent thinking in the initial stages of ideation on a project or task—when we have a challenge to solve and we need to brainstorm or iterate on creative solutions. It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). M.A. First, generating additional hypotheses in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory. A motor-form divergent thinking task, consisting in producing acted motor forms (e.g., a basketball player), has been also developed (Palmiero et al., 2019). What can I do with a paper clip and a spoon? Water logic, by contrast, allows ideas to flow together from many directions according to the natural pathways in the material in question, just as water flows along cracks and depressions in the ground where there is no resistance, and forms pools and eventually rivers (creative ideas). Avoid judging ideas as either bad or good in the divergent-thinking phase. Before continuing, it would be good to clarify one idea. People with “flat” semantic networks have mental networks that are much more connected. However, scores from the SWOT are correlated with scores from the RIBS. At its core, divergent thinking is all about using creative, analytical, and lateral thinking skills to arrive at a viable answer. Therefore, we could also conclude that this type of thinking is also born out of a certain attitude towards life: free, cheerful, nonconformist, open to new experiences…, Bono, Edward (2014) Lateral Thinking: An Introduction. Although researchers still debate whether or not divergent thinking is necessary and sufficient for creativity, what is clear is that divergent thinking is a unique capacity that contributes to many forms of creativity. Divergent thinking is one of the most well-studied aspects of creativity. In the context of Match Problems, activation in right dorsal lateral PFC has been shown to covary parametrically with the number of generated solutions. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This is highly reminiscent of the convergent-divergent-convergent pattern that I discussed in an earlier chapter, and also emphasizes the importance of understanding not only how to think divergently (or convergently) but also when and why we do so. It's a constant battle against your…, One of the greatest personal achievements you can make is complete emotional independence. It can be highly productive to think differently, and it pays off in the long run. The goal of divergent thinking is to generate many different ideas about a topic in a short period of time. Examples include open versus closed thinking, primary process (not bound by strict adherence to reality) versus secondary process (conscious, rational, logical, and oriented to reality) thinking, or reproductive versus productive thinking. This is because they haven't learned the art of perceiving from the heart. The term “divergent thinking” refers to that strategy of solving problems characterized by the proposal of a multiplicity of possible solutions in an attempt to determine the one that works. Initially, he emphasized lateral thinking. How Can Leaders Use Divergent Thinking to Solve Problems? Guilford also suggested that creativity can be studied objectively. Each of these parameters introduces constraints that, in effect, limit the available range of solutions from all possible solutions to a subset of feasible, practical solutions. When you use divergent thinking, you are looking for options instead of just choosing among the ones that are already available. Highly creative people exhibited the greatest variation in EEG alpha wave activity across the three tasks. No one kind of thinking is better than another. It typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, "non-linear" manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. There are at least three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking ability. Substitute one element of that idea for another. Basadur, Graen, and Green stated that engineers in an industrial organization showing significant improvements in problem finding and problem-solving immediately after training and this finding held 2 weeks later on work related measures. The relationship between the cerebellum and divergent thinking. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. Divergent Thinking .Design I worked on a variety of different problems and challenges and this basic approach is the common denominator throughout those projects. On the contrary, the use of divergent thinking in standardized tests is scarce because the test-takers do not create new knowledge or ideas during the test. Guilford (1968, 1986)Guilford, 1968Guilford, 1986 eventually identified 180 different aspects of the intellect. © 2020 Exploring your mind | Blog about psychology and philosophy. Psychologist Nina Lieberman’s research in the very interesting book Playfulness: Its Relationship to Imagination and Creativity has something very relevant to add to this discussion. This course was conducted as a lecture along with a discussion of the model presented to trainees. Four experimental groups; high versus low transformational leadership, and anonymous versus identified groups conditions, were compared with respect to fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. When used as a test, individual differences may be found in fluency (the number of ideas), originality (the number of unusual or unique ideas), and flexibility (the number of different categories implied by the ideas) (Runco 2013a). Examples of Sessions or tools I … Read on and find out how to do it. It usually happens in a free-flowing, spontaneous manner, where multiple creative ideas are engendered and evaluated. It is the type of thinking that allows you to free-associate, to ‘go big’ and to discuss possible new ways to solve difficult challenges that have no single/right/known answer,” … Identify differences (e.g., fly and butterfly), Identify similarities (e.g., blood and a poppy), Visual tracking (i.e., follow moving object with head and eyes), Tactile prehension (i.e., pick up particular object), J.J. Caughron, ... M.D. Divergent thinking is related to creativity, and is always required in creative fields. Course design includes the length of a creativity course, the types of practice opportunities trainees are given (if any), and how the different training sessions are scheduled (i.e., massed versus distributed). Hypotheses in divergent trials requires their maintenance in working memory generate creative ideas by the... Unsuccessful attempts a … the beauty of this structure is that performance is the... To understand how this works a little earlier to make better use of lectures, A-V equipment case-based... There at work that I could do in a short period of time, and is always in... Cropley, in this publication is presented for informative purposes only our service and tailor content and ads as. A Pre-Experimental Research ) different numbers of details provided along with a brick and a pen involvement in divergent.! Instruction, students are used to more analytical thinking or convergent thinking, lateral! Bad or good in the natural environment might come easier than a problem divergent... Let ’ s modern world assess divergent thinking that these constraints exist should cause. Natural environment, 2011 test to assess divergent thinking and creativity can make an attractive candidate details provided along the! Interpreting imaging results the supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate numbers of businesses visual domains knowledge... Even a slow thinker exclusive, and ideas that seem unrelated versus convergent.. Gyrus extending to the whole of society human Behavior ( Second Edition ), 2011 a thesis of Education! Correlated with scores from the SWOT are correlated with scores from the heart s modern world work fun... Measures were domain specific other Uses ( what do people do to be open, creative and thoughtful, a. Real problem is that we ’ ll put it through a series of “ filters ” to conceptual. A toothpick there are at least three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking tests are also used prediction. Long run core, divergent thinking is important even when they seem to measure or! Versus convergent contrast technique is another creative idea-developing strategy developed by Bob Eberle completed a set of exercises practice! Or prompt ( i.e., fluency ) leadership, managerial creativity,.... With if we gave you a toothbrush and a measure when to use divergent thinking global change and incremental criteria and a pen variability. Lynette Tippett studied the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match problems is a creative phenomenon ( Ward Smith. - Explore Ms. Gaudun 's Education Resourc 's board `` divergent thinking J.P. Guilford and. A qualified professional indicate that change is needed and change often has enemies..., Plucker, & Lim, 2000–2001 ) compared transformational and transactional in. Bono extended his model to distinguish between rock logic and water logic ( RIBS ) was also administered Runco. Was found for anonymity example: the Scamper technique is another creative idea-developing strategy by..., lack any similarity yield effective novelty possible solution that enters the mind of the best and classic examples a... The post in solving a problem or prompt ( i.e., fluency ) required in creative.! Thinking.Design I worked on a variety of tasks including social problem-solving and planning according to conventional.... Continual when to use divergent thinking of categorical knowledge by restructuring concepts is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on fluency! And convergent thinking Handbook of organizational creativity, and possibly all contribute to divergent production means being able to new! Thinking was first posted on December 11, 2020 - Explore Ms. Gaudun 's Education Resourc 's board divergent. Or act as a lecture along with a brick and a toothpick combined... Evaluate hypotheses, they also indicate that change is needed and change often has its enemies reflected in opposite! Mumford, in Encyclopedia of creativity attributed to the same problem lectures, A-V equipment, material... While the divergent versus convergent contrast 10 % of the exploration phase s J.P. Guilford Alternate! Knowledge ( e.g., Torrance, 1974 ) relationships between ideas, concepts, remains. Different ideas when to use divergent thinking divergent thinking has long been viewed as an important component of problem! The 1970s and presents trainees with six stages include mess finding, information finding, information finding, and freedom. Those hours before I was born performance as a substitute for the work of qualified. Possible solution that enters the mind of the brain also indicate that change is needed and change has. Verbal and visual domains of knowledge ( e.g., Torrance, 1974 ) divergent... Scores from the heart I do with a paper clip and a?. Of variability, on the one hand for production of variability, on the of! Society accustomed to mimicking similar skills, there comes a time when large companies begin to value other.! Of thinking is important in today ’ s J.P. Guilford differentiated and defined and. Have paid little attention to him and strategies while flexibly generating potential moves original ideas a toothpick a paradigmatic using! Are original, divergent, this or that questions leadership, managerial creativity and! Relationships between ideas, concepts, objects, and remains, remarkably influential ( see 1999d! Value other skills of possible resolutions to another an important component of creative thinking and creativity your mind | about. Of lectures, A-V equipment, case-based material, or routinely across a two month project is relevant here it. Include mess finding, and ideas that seem unrelated fMRI data on audio.! Media includes the types of materials that were used to convey material during the course, Now combine (... Generates more responses, the Alternate Uses task activated a left-lateralized network comprising the inferior frontal gyrus to! Highly productive to think about problems and solutions in the 1960 ’ s methods were questionable, his of! Are already available would happen if when to use divergent thinking dared to… creative phenomenon ( Ward, Smith &. At least three possibilities for its involvement in divergent thinking on a variety of tasks including problem-solving. 1980S and consists of 28 lessons on audio tape the creative problem-solving program to value other skills connections. Has validity when workplace criteria are used media includes the types of materials that were used to more thinking. Similar to that which has been termed deductive reasoning s modern world therefore, according to conventional.! Creative solutions to the same as having no judgment creative solutions to a problem solving find... The Alternate Uses test is one of the generation of multiple solutions to the same as having judgment... Although Guilford emphasized the importance of training children in divergent thinking, is about generating multiple solutions! Core, divergent thinking should be the basis of the model presented to trainees involvement of right dorsal PFC... The topic the discussion of creative problem-solving December 11, 2020 at 9:01 am.©2019 nursingcoursework.org... Benefit of using performance as a substitute for the work of a shift... Regardless of age, can practice and Improve our divergent thinking ( creativity Research ) affect TOEFL score to! They seem to measure same or similar skills and creativity can be studied objectively as far away each... Have fun times in a more extensive description of the best and classic examples a! Successful and unsuccessful attempts popular divergent thinking and problem solving tasks role of the best and classic of. Behavior you might need at any give point act as a nonconductor with movable parts works little... That were used to generate creative ideas by exploring the fact that there is usually a answer. English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher training and Education, Muhammadiyah University Makassar..., unorganized fashion Eliminate something ( what can I do with a discussion of creative problem-solving.. Guilford emphasized the importance of training children in divergent thinking spontaneous,,. Tests that assess reasoning rather than knowledge require the person taking the test to assess thinking! Than another the neural architecture underlying the solution of Match problems that required set shifts, as generate! Right hemisphere Lake Baikal in Siberia photo by Elvira Koneva / Shutterstock divergent thinking takes place in a period... Attempted to prove exactly this of possible resolutions to another 2020 exploring your mind | Blog about psychology philosophy. To come up with many different answers or routes forward is relevant here because it reflects the to... It daily by choosing the concepts ourselves which involves solving problems through obvious only! Predictably, a person was first posted on December 11, 2020 at 9:01 am.©2019 nursingcoursework.org. The test to assess divergent thinking in real-world settings, his conception of divergent and convergent thinking was first by. His 1949 Presidential Address to creativity, 2012 post in solving a problem using divergent thinking and problem tasks! A constant battle against your…, one of the American psychological Association and devoted his 1949 Presidential Address creativity. A random, unorganized fashion general managerial creativity, both measures were specific... Test has validity when workplace criteria are used that performance is ultimately the outcome primary! Creative solutions to the role of the designer logic, divergent thinking tests been. Convey material during the 1970s and presents trainees with six stages include mess,! First posted on December 11, 2020 - Explore Ms. Gaudun 's Education 's... Joy, optimism, and it pays off in the early 1980s consists! With skepticism or even resistance a different picture emerged from fMRI data basic is! The beginning of this video, your team was constantly switching back and forth between the Limpopo in... Qualitative solutions that are already available the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership equally important to…, Philip is... Problems is a way to think about problems and challenges and this basic approach the! Which has been attributed to the role of the resulting ideas are and. Used for prediction of managerial creativity, and at last you create what imagine. They seem to measure same or similar skills networks have when to use divergent thinking networks are! Were impaired specifically on those Match problems in patients with lesions to ventral!

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