… Zhuangzi is both the name of the second foundational text of the Daoist philosophical and religious tradition and the name of the putative author of this text after whom the book was titled, who, according to early historical sources, flourished between about 369 and 286 bce. Selections from the Outer Chapters. Now there's been another change and she's dead. Master Zhuang said: "Above ground I'd be eaten by crows and kites, below ground I'd be eaten by mole crickets and ants. I own 7 translations of the Zhuangzi, and this one just blew them all away! , The Zhuangzi retained prominence throughout Chinese history as the preeminent example of core Daoist philosophical ideals. He edited an earlier version consisting of 52 sections down to 33 sections, the omitted 19 sections were considered inferior and of a spurious nature. In Chinese thought, some picked up its detest for the world and its customs, broad and unrestrained.  Despite the uncertainty over their authorship, however, all of the Zhuangzi's 33 surviving chapters are accepted as compositions from the 4th to 2nd centuries BC. It's just like the progression of the four seasons, spring, summer, fall, winter." Selected pages. According to the Han dynasty historian, Sima Qian, Zhuangzi was born during the Warring States (403-221 BCE), more than a century after the death of Confucius. Once, Zhuang Zhou dreamed he was a butterfly, a butterfly flitting and fluttering about, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. However, like the Daodejing, sections of the Zhuangzi (or Chuang-Tzu) were composed by different authors and the compiled text contains writings collected over a period of time. 1. 南海之帝為儵，北海之帝為忽，中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地，渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德，曰：人皆有七竅，以視聽食息，此獨無有，嘗試鑿之。日鑿一竅，七日而渾沌死。 The Zhuangzi is named for and attributed to a man named Zhuang Zhou—usually known as "Zhuangzi", from the Mandarin Chinese Zhuāngzǐ 莊子, meaning "Master Zhuang".  The Zhuangzi also played a significant role in the formation of Chan ("Zen") Buddhism, which grew out of "a fusion of Buddhist ideology and ancient Daoist thought.  The story of Zhuangzi drumming on a tub and singing after the death of his wife inspired an entire tradition of folk music called "funeral drumming" (sàng-gǔ 喪鼓) in central China's Hubei and Hunan Provinces that survived into the 18th and 19th centuries. If [one] distinguishes them, how can [one] tell if [one] is now dreaming or awake? Chronology xi. 惠子曰：我非子，固不知子矣；子固非魚也，子之不知魚之樂全矣。 55: Selections from Traditional Commentaries on the Inner Chapters . À l'époque du Zhuangzi, la notion d'auteur personnel d'œuvres littéraires ne s'était pas encore dégagée et le Zhuangzi n'est qu'une indigesta moles de rédaction anonyme, encore que le style porte en maints endroits la marque d'un écrivain de génie. Whereas reason and logic became the hallmark of Ancient Greek philosophy and then the entire Western philosophical tradition, in China philosophers preferred to rely on moral persuasion and intuition.  However, Zhuangzi believed that the key to true happiness was to free oneself from the world and its standards through the Daoist principle of "inaction" (Wu wei wúwéi 無為)—action that is not based on any purposeful striving or motives for gain—and was fundamentally opposed to systems that impose order on individuals.  Today, it is generally accepted that the middle and later Zhuangzi chapters are the result of a process of "accretion and redaction" by later authors "responding to the scintillating brilliance" of the inner chapters. Between Zhuang Zhou and the butterfly there must be some distinction! The Zhuangzi consists of a large collection of anecdotes, allegories, parables, and fables, which are often humorous or irreverent in nature. ", Traces of the Zhuangzi's influence in late Warring States period philosophical texts such as the Guanzi, Han Feizi, Huainanzi, and Lüshi Chunqiu suggest that Zhuangzi's intellectual lineage was already fairly influential in the states of Qi and Chu in the 3rd century BC. 127: About the Commentators. Zhuangzi elucidates this mystical philosophy through humor, parable, and anecdote, deploying non sequitur and even nonsense to illuminate a truth beyond the boundaries of ordinary logic. And this particular translation is both very readable, though I have come to prefer Brook Ziporyn's. The First Chapter of “Zhuangzi”  Summary. Lickety and Split often met each other in the land of Wonton, and Wonton treated them very well. During this time, the ostensibly ruling house of Zhou had lost its authority, and there was increasing violence between states contending for imperial power. It is composed of 33 chapters, and evidence suggests that there may have been as many as 53 chapters in copies of the book … With the writings attributed to Laozi, the Zhuangzi contributed to an alternative philosophical ideal that matched Confucianism in its impact on Chinese culture. Chuang Tzu (more correctly rendered as Zhuang Zi) is perhaps the second most important figure in Daoism after (the possibly Mythic) Lao Zi. ", Since ancient times, the Zhuangzi's first seven chapters—the "inner chapters" (nèi piān 內篇)—have been considered to be the actual work of Zhuangzi, and most modern scholars agree with this view. Master Zhuang said: "I take heaven and earth as my inner and outer coffins, the sun and moon as my pair of jade disks, the stars and constellations as my pearls and beads, the ten thousand things as my funerary gifts. The Philosophy of Zhuangzi By Nasrullah Mambrol on April 21, 2019 • ( 1).  Zhi Dun, China's first aristocratic Buddhist monk, wrote a prominent commentary to the Zhuangzi in the mid-4th century. The emperor of the Southern Seas was Lickety, the emperor of the Northern Sea was Split, and the emperor of the Center was Wonton. 人且偃然寢於巨室，而我噭噭然隨而哭之，自以為不通乎命，故止也。 Zhuangzi said, "You are not I. HISTORY OF BOOK TITLED: ZHUANGZI The present version of the ancient Taoist book on philosophy titled Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi) was edited by Kuo Hsiang around 300 CE. ", The Zhuangzi vigorously opposes formal government, which Zhuangzi seems to have felt was problematic at its foundation "because of the opposition between man and nature. He is thought to have spent time in the southern state of Chu, as well as in Linzi, the capital of the state o…  In the 4th century AD, the Zhuangzi became a major source of imagery and terminology for a new form of Daoism known as the "Highest Clarity" (Shangqing 上清) school that was popular among the aristocracy of the Jin dynasty (AD 265–420). , Among the Japanese national treasures preserved in the Kōzan-ji temple in Kyoto is a Zhuangzi manuscript from the Muromachi period (1338–1573).  The manuscript has seven complete chapters from the "outer" and "miscellaneous" chapters, and is believed to be a close copy of an annotated edition written in the 7th century by the Chinese Daoist master Cheng Xuanying (成玄英; fl.  In this anecdote, Mair suggests that Zhuangzi humorously and absurdly uses "Wonton"—a name for both the Chinese conception of primordial chaos and, by physical analogy, wonton soup (which is, however, not attested until the Han dynasty at the earliest) —to demonstrate what he believed were the disastrous consequences of going against things' innate natures. They went about the business in different ways, but in losing their sheep they were equal. The goal of ethnographic interviewing is to understand and appreciate experiences and worldviews of people who are different from us. The 17th century scholar Gu Yanwu lamented his government's flippant use of the Zhuangzi on the imperial examination essays as representative of a decline in traditional morals at the end of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The most famous of all Zhuangzi stories—"Zhuang Zhou Dreams of Being a Butterfly"—appears at the end of the second chapter, "On the Equality of Things". , Many Zhuangzi fragments dating from the early Tang dynasty were discovered among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by the expeditions of Hungarian-British explorer Aurel Stein and French Sinologist Paul Pelliot. The fables and anecdotes in the text attempt to illustrate the falseness of human distinctions between good and bad, large and small, life and death, and human and nature. Summary. Chapter One The Social and Political Background— Confucianism—Mozi and Mohism (Moe-ds) and (Moe-ism)—Yang Zhu and Shen Dao (Ya-ahng, Jew)— Language and Logicians—Trends During the Warring States Era—Cultural Heroes and Concepts—Summary 3. Zhuangzi believed that the greatest of all human happiness could be achieved through a higher understanding of the nature of things, and that in order to develop oneself fully one needed to express one's innate ability. 弟子曰：吾恐烏鳶之食夫子也。莊子曰：在上為烏鳶食，在下為螻蟻食，奪彼與此，何其偏也。 He is introduced several times by Chuang Tzu in his writings:—Books IV, 7; XXVII, 4, and perhaps elsewhere. The primary themes and argumentative strategies in Zhuangzi's philosophy bear some resemblance to those in the Daodejing. , 莊子與惠子遊於濠梁之上。莊子曰：儵魚出遊從容，是魚樂也。 It was part of a much larger work published by Legge under the title The Chinese Classics, which rendered into English seven of the nine classics of Chinese literature. He was looking up to heaven and breathed gently, seeming to be in a trance, and to have lost all consciousness of any companion. 55: Selections from Traditional Commentaries on the Inner Chapters . The story of "The Debate on the Joy of Fish" is a well-known anecdote that has been compared to the Socratic dialogue tradition of ancient Greece. Zhuangzi and Huizi were enjoying themselves on the bridge over the Hao River. summary. But since we know so little about the life and identity of Zhuangzi or his connection with the book that bears his name, it is perhaps best not to seek too assiduously to establish a direct causal connection between the background and the philosophy. He edited an earlier version consisting of 52 sections down to 33 sections, the omitted 19 sections were considered inferior and of a spurious nature. Translations from Mair (1998): pp.  But how many, if any, of the remaining 26 chapters—the "outer chapters" (wài piān 外篇) and "miscellaneous chapters" (zá piān 雜篇)—were written by Zhuangzi has long been debated. He is generally said to have been born around 369 BC at a place called Meng (蒙) in the state of Song (around present-day Shangqiu, Henan province), and to have died around 301, 295, or 286 BC. Chapter Two The Dao De Jing—Why Does the … This is called the Transformation of Things. (2001), This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 04:54.  One of the slips from the Guodian bamboo texts, which date to around 300 BC, contains what appears to be a short fragment from the "Ransacking Coffers" ("Qu qie" 胠篋) chapter. Zhuangzi is best known through the book that bears his name, the Zhuangzi, also known as Nanhua zhenjing (“The Pure Classic of Nanhua”). Book II Part I Section II Khi Wu Lun, or 'The Adjustment of Controversies 1.'. Section One: The Context. " The text tries to show that "as soon as government intervenes in natural affairs, it destroys all possibility of genuine happiness. Footnotes. Tallinn University.  These principles form the core ideas of philosophical Daoism. Chuang-tzu The Tao of Perfect Happiness : Selections Annotated & Explained (Book) : Zhuangzi : The timeless wisdom of this classic Taoist text can become a companion on your own spiritual journey. ", Zhuangzi seems to have viewed death as a natural process or transformation, where one gives up one form of existence and assumes another. From Jia Yi 賈誼 (200-169 BCE) and Sima Qian 司馬遷 (c. 145-86 BCE) onward, there was almost nobody of the great writers of the past who was not affected by it.  In the second chapter, he makes the point that, for all humans know, death may in fact be better than life: "How do I know that loving life is not a delusion?  In the introduction to his Zhuangzi translation, the American scholar Burton Watson concluded: "Whoever Zhuang Zhou was, the writings attributed to him bear the stamp of a brilliant and original mind. They went about the business in different ways, but in losing their sheep they were equal. Boldly imaginative and inventively worded, the Zhuangzi floats free of its historical period and society, addressing the spiritual nourishment of all people across time. Zhuangzi said, "Let's go back to the beginning of this. But since we know so little about the life and identity of Zhuangzi or his connection with the book that bears his name, it is perhaps best not to seek too assiduously to establish a direct causal connection between the background and the philosophy.  However, during the Qin and Han dynasties—with their state-sponsored Legalist and Confucian ideologies, respectively—the Zhuangzi does not seem to have been highly regarded. Whoever Zhuang Zhou was, the writings attributed to him bear the stamp of a brilliant and original mind. But I looked back to her beginning and the time before she was born. "You lived with her, she brought up your children and grew old," said Huizi. Zhuangzi believes the ultimate road to attain the Way is through experience and intuition, rather than learning or reading words. Not only the time before she had a body, but the time before she had a spirit. I found a summary of the book on a different website: ... "Genuine Pretending is an innovative and comprehensive new reading of the Zhuangzi that highlights the critical and therapeutic functions of satire and humor. The Chuang-tzu is the second major text of the Taoist tradition. Eberhard, W. "The Local Cultures of South and East China", Brill, 1968, p.440. Chapter 2. 630–660). A masterpiece of both philosophical and literary skill, it has significantly influenced writers for more than 2000 years from the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220) to the present. ", The stories and anecdotes of the Zhuangzi embody a unique set of principles and attitudes, including living one's life with natural spontaneity, uniting one's inner self with the cosmic "Way" (Dao), keeping oneself distant from politics and social obligations, accepting death as a natural transformation, showing appreciation and praise for things others view as useless or aimless, and stridently rejecting social values and conventional reasoning. Ask the slave boy how it happened: well, he had a bundle of writing slips and was reading a book.14 Ask the slave girl how it happened: well, she was playing a game of toss-and-wait-your-turn. The Chuang Inner Chapters Tzu Summary. This book contains the "inner chapters," not the entire Chuang Tzu, but generally considered the essential and least corrupt chapters. Book Notes x. summary. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary Genuine Pretending is an innovative and comprehensive new reading of the Zhuangzi that highlights the critical and therapeutic functions of satire and humor. In 1939, the British translator and Sinologist Arthur Waley described the Zhuangzi as "one of the most entertaining as well as one of the profoundest books in the world.  One exception is Han dynasty scholar Jia Yi's 170 BC work "Fu on the Owl" (Fúniǎo fù 鵩鳥賦), the earliest definitively known fu rhapsody, which does not reference the Zhuangzi by name but cites it for one-sixth of the poem. 127: About the Commentators. I don't think she had laymen in mind when writing it. The other is the book Laozi 老子 or Daodejing 道德經. Nan-kwo Sze-khi 2 was seated, leaning forward on his stool. The Zhuangzi (Mandarin: [ʈʂwáŋ.tsɹ̩̀]; historically romanized Chuang Tzŭ) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476–221 BC) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Taoist sage.
Tallinn University. But in spite of differences of form and emphasis, the two texts present the same view of the Dao and its relation to the world. Contents. His technical mastery of ancient Chinese linguistic theory in some of these suggests that Zhuangzi studied and thought deeply about semantics. Decoding Dao : Reading the Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) in SearchWorks catalog , Portions of the Zhuangzi have been discovered among bamboo slip texts from Warring States period and Han dynasty tombs, particularly at the Shuanggudui and Zhangjiashan Han bamboo texts sites. You rob the one and give to the other—how skewed would that be? How do you know that the fish are happy?" It was compiled in the third century BCE and follows the lead of the best-known and oldest of all Taoist texts, the Tao-te-ching (Book … Section Two: Authors and Texts.  The story seems to make the point that "knowing" a thing is simply a state of mind, and that it is not possible to determine if that knowing has any objective validity. Summary. He considers the different ways the world appears to very large and very small beings, and the different perspectives on life of short and long lived species. Highest Clarity Daoism borrowed notable Zhuangzi terms, such as "perfected man" (zhēn rén 真人), "Great Clarity" (Tài Qīng 太清), and "fasting the mind" (xīn zhāi 心齋), and though they are used somewhat differently than in the Zhuangzi itself, they still show the important role the Zhuangzi played at the time. So I stopped. Summary. I ... As this is my favorite book of philosophy, I'm overjoyed with such a vibrant new translation. Contents. The Zhuangzi’s influence on (Chinese) literature is immense. One of the most justly celebrated texts of the Chinese tradition, the Zhuangzi is read by thousands of English-language scholars each year, yet, until now, only in the Wade-Giles romanization. Tâ Tsung Shih, or 'The Great Source as Teacher,' 'The Great Ancestral Teacher," 'The Great and Honored Teacher,' 'The Great and Most Honored Master.' The Zhuangzi is named for and attributed to a man named Zhuang Zhou—usually known as "Zhuangzi", from the Mandarin Chinese Zhuāngzǐ 莊子, meaning "Master Zhuang". When Huizi went to convey his condolences, he found Zhuangzi sitting with his legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing. 昔者莊周夢為胡蝶，栩栩然胡蝶也，自喻適志與。不知周也。  He is thought to have spent time in the southern state of Chu, as well as in Linzi, the capital of the state of Qi. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary Genuine Pretending is an innovative and comprehensive new reading of the Zhuangzi that highlights the critical and therapeutic functions of satire and humor.  The Zhuangzi played a significant role in the traditional Chinese skepticism toward rationalism, as Zhuangzi frequently turns logical arguments upside-down to satirize and discredit them. Though primarily known as a philosophical work, the Zhuangzi is regarded as one of the greatest literary works in all of Chinese history, and has been called "the most important pre-Qin text for the study of Chinese literature". , The Zhuangzi has been called "the most important of all the Daoist writings", and its "inner chapters" embody the core ideas of philosophical Daoism. Zhuangzi elucidates this mystical philosophy through humor, parable, and anecdote, deploying non sequitur and even nonsense to illuminate a truth beyond the boundaries of ordinary logic. The Zhuangzi bears the name of its alleged author but, like the Daodejing, its sections were most probably composed by different authors, and the extant text contains writings collected over a period of time. How do I know that in hating death I am not like a man who, having left home in his youth, has forgotten the way back? 俄然覺，則蘧蘧然周也。不知周之夢為胡蝶與，胡蝶之夢為周與。周與胡蝶，則必有分矣。此之謂物化。 He wants to call the Ruler of Destiny in order to resurrect the dead man – he would like to have a talk with him. ", The Zhuangzi is by far the most influential purely literary work dating from before China's imperial unification in 221 BC.  As Burton Watson described, "the skilled woodcarver, the skilled butcher, the skilled swimmer does not ponder or ratiocinate on the course of action he should take; his skill has become so much a part of him that he merely acts instinctively and spontaneously and, without knowing why, achieves success. Chuang Tzu (Zhuangzi, Kwang-tse) . 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